Ethiopia is located in the north-eastern part of Africa commonly known as the Horn of Africa. Neighbouring countries include Djibouti and Somalia in the east, Kenya in the south, Sudan in the west and south-west and Eritrea in the north and north-east. The country covers 1,112,000 square kilometres (472,000 sq. miles) making it roughly five times the size of the UK.
The Capital was settled in 1886 and christened by Queen Taytu, consort of Emperor Menelik II. The population is estimated to be 3.2 million according to the official census of 2005-2006.
The Ethiopia is an independent republic operating under the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The president is the head of state, while the prime minister is the head of government.
LAND AND POPULATION
Ethiopia covers an area of 1,133,380 sq km (437,600 sq mi).
The heart of the country is a high tableland, known as the Ethiopian Plateau, that covers more than half the total area of the country. The plateau is split diagonally in a northeastern to southwestern direction by the Great Rift Valley. Although the average elevation of the plateau is about 1,680 m (about 5,500 ft), it is cut by many rivers and deep valleys, some of which are 600 m (2,000 ft) below the level of the plateau.
The area is capped by mountains, the highest of which is Ras Dashen (4,620 m/15,157 ft). These heights and indentations occur in northern Ethiopia, in the region surrounding Lake Tana (the lake in which the Blue Nile rises). Occupations in agriculture support 89 percent of all Ethiopians. Most agriculture consists of subsistence farming. The population is concentrated heavily in the central plateau region, where agricultural resources are most developed. The ethnic composition is extremely diverse, as a result of racial and linguistic integration that began in ancient times.
The climate of Ethiopia varies mainly according to elevation. The tropical zone below approximately 1,800 m (approximately 6,000 ft) has an average annual temperature of about 27°C (about 80°F) and receives less than about 500 mm (about 20 in) of rain annually. The subtropical zone, which includes most of the highland plateau and is between about 1,800 and 2,400 m (about 6,000 and 8,000 ft) in elevation, has an average temperature of about 22°C (about 72°F) with an annual rainfall ranging from about 500 to 1,500 mm (about 20 to 60 in). Above approximately 2,400 m (approximately 8,000 ft) is a temperate zone with an average temperature of about 16°C (about 61°F) and an annual rainfall between about 1,300 and 1,800 mm (about 50 and 70 in). The principal rainy season occurs between mid-June and September, followed by a dry season that may be interrupted in February or March by a short rainy season.
POPULATION AND POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS
The population of Ethiopia (2018 estimate) is 109.2 milion estimate, yielding an overall density of 58 persons per sq km (151 per sq mi). The Amhara, who founded the original nation, and the related Tigreans, both of which are highland peoples of partly Semitic origin, constitute about 32 percent of the total population. They occupy the northwestern Ethiopian highlands and the area north of Addis Ababa. The Oromo, a pastoral and agricultural people who live mainly in central and southwestern Ethiopia, constitute about 40 percent of the population. The Shankella, a people in the western part of the country from the border of Eritrea to Lake Turkana, constitute about 6 percent of the population. The Somali, who live in the east and southeast, notably in the Ogaden region, are about equal in number to the Shangalla. The Denakil inhabit the semi desert plains east of the highlands. The no indigenous population includes Yemenis, India ns, Armenians, and Greeks